Sunday, June 27, 2021

Hudaibiyah Treaty

  Tim       Sunday, June 27, 2021

Muslims were caught in the throes of apparent defeat when they were confronted with the incident in Hudaibiya, which marks a watershed moment in Islamic history.

It had been six years since the Prophet and his companions had left Makkah when the Hijrah (migration) began. They wished to pay respect to the Kaaba and perform tawaf (circumambulation).

In the meantime, Muslims were engaged in three battles with the pagans of Makkah: the Battles of Badr, Uhud, and the Battle of Trench. Undeniably, Muslims were unable to overcome the overwhelming power of Meccan's pagans, despite victories in at least two battles (including being forced to retreat from Uhud).

Meanwhile, a meeting of Hudaibiyah was held, which not only inspired Muslims to carry out their mission, but also tested their bravery and faith in Islam as they faced challenges.

Six years after Hijrah, in 628 CE, the Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) had a dream in which he was about to enter Makkah with a group of disciples. It appeared to be a favourable omen, and he announced his intention to travel to Makkah and perform Umrah.

He was accompanied by more than 1,400 Muslims from Madinah, all of whom donated theirram to the cause. They brought 70 camels as a sacrifice to the altar. As was customary, the Makkans were forced to grant permission to Umrah pilgrims who arrived without weapons. Fearing for their safety because of the large Muslim presence, the Quraish leaders decided to deny them entry and dispatched 200 fighters to Khaled Bin Walid to prevent them from breaking with centuries of Arab tradition.

A lesser-known location called Hudaibiya on the western outskirts of the city was where the holy prophet (peace be upon him) ended up after changing his route across Taneem in order to avoid a confrontation with the authorities.

The Makkans, adamant about not allowing Muslims to enter the city, dispatched Urwah bin Masud to negotiate with the Prophet Muhammad. "I visited the royal courts of the Persians, the Romans, and the Ethiopians, but I never witnessed the level of reverence and adoration that Mohammad's supporters had for him," writes the author. They had only come to worship, and that was it. Permit them to enter the holy city on their own accord." The leaders of Makkah, on the other hand, were reluctant to bar the Muslims from entering the city.

The Holy Prophet then dispatched Uthman bin Affan, who had some good contacts in Makkah, on his behalf (peace be upon him). They imprisoned him and spread rumours that Uthman had been killed in order to enrage the Moslems. It was a massive undertaking on everyone's part. The man prepared for a warlike situation while 400 kilometres away from his home and without the necessary fighting weapons. He also ordered his followers to prepare for a battle until they were killed. Immediately, the crowd rushed forward to take an oath of faith in his pious hand, and news of the 1400 volunteers' willingness to fight to the death spread quickly throughout Makkah. Their morale had plummeted, and Makkans agreed to negotiate peace terms with him as a result.

In exchange for his release, they mandated Sohayl bin Amr Al-Thaqafi to negotiate peace treaties with Prophet Muhammad on his behalf (peace be upon him). Sohayl (who later became Islamic) was a ruthless negotiator who was known for his tenacity. In the name of Allah, the Almighty, he reached the following agreement with his adversary.


Terms of Agreement

The following are the terms of the agreement reached between Muhammad, the son of Abdullah, and Suhayl Ibn Amr, the Mecca envoy:

1. For the next ten years, there will be no fighting between the two parties after they have signed an armistice.

2. Any individual or tribe is free to associate with Muhammad and enter into any agreement with him. Every individual or tribe can also become a member of the Quraish and enter into any agreement with them.

3. When Makkan travelled to Madinah, Muslims would return him to Makkah; however, if a Muslim from Madinah travelled to Makkah, he would not be returned to Makkah.

4. Any young man or father who visits Muhammad without the permission of his or her father or guardian will be returned to his or her father or guardian after the visit. Nobody, on the other hand, will be returned to the Makkan Quraish.

5. Muslims are returning to Makkah this year, but they will not be entering the city. However, Muhammad and his followers will be able to enter Makkah next year, stay for three days, and perform the Umrah.

The agreement initially appeared to be in opposition to Muslim desires, but it ultimately proved to be a significant victory for Muslims.

The Prophet (peace be upon him) demonstrated incredible patience by agreeing to all of the terms that were dictated to him. The Hudaibiyah Treaty is the name given to this agreement. It was one of the most remarkable events in the history of Islam, and it proved to be a watershed moment in the religion's development.

Few could have predicted that the Treaty would be victorious as a result of the Prophet's foresight. According to the Treaty, the hostile leadership of Makkah officially recognised Prophet Mohammed (peace be upon him) as the ruler of the Madinah state, which was the first of its many benefits. 

First and foremost, the Treaty put an end to the hostile behaviour of the Quraish toward Muslims. They were now free to move about and talk openly about Islam without fear of being harassed. Third, Muslims were given the freedom to form alliances on an equal footing with other tribes, as was everyone else. Fourth, the ten-year armistice with the Kuraish provided an unprecedented opportunity for the preaching of Islam and their rivals in other parts of the peninsula. Khyber, the Jewish fortress, was overrun in a short period of time.

However, the Prophet (peace be upon him) simplified these provisions by stating that if a Muslim fled from the place to Makkah, we would bring him back and he would preach Islam. When it came to the Umrah this year, Muslims were given a written assurance that they would be able to do so peacefully the following year. The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him) was determined to prevent bloodshed in the holy town, which he founded entirely by chance and with no intention of doing so. According to the commentators, the treaty was hailed as a masterpiece of foresight and knowledge on the part of the author.

This was, without a doubt, a significant victory for Mohammed the Prophet (peace be upon him). As a result of Hudaibiyah's peaceful armistice, Islam experienced a meteoric rise in popularity. Muslims were given complete freedom to preach Islam. Three Qur'aan battles with Muslims resulted in a loss for the Muslims.

They recognised that Islam would eventually win the victory. Hundreds of thousands of people converted to Islam. Following that, the holy prophet returned to perform umrah the following year, accompanied by two thousand pilgrims who had travelled from the year 1400.

Upon returning to Medina, the Prophet received a divine revelation, which he named "Fatah al-Mubeen," indicating that Almighty Allah had placed an honorary scale on it in the Quran, and he named it as such (Manifest Victory). The Prophet (48:01) rewarded people who took a loyal oath under the protection of a tree named Bait Ridwan, and he stated that Allah's protection was in the hands of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

After the conclusion of the treaty, the holy Prophet instructed his followers to slaughter sacrificial animals in the same location and shave their heads in order to remove ihram from their bodies. However, because the general public was so dejected, compliance took longer than expected. As soon as he felt it, the Prophet (peace be upon him) entered the tents and informed his wife, Umm Salma, of the people's fear.

"The people are shocked that they have lost their Umrah and that they no longer have access to the Holy City," she said in her political advice. You're carrying out your strategy. You're going to have to follow me." The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) arose and shaved his head, after which he slaughtered his camels and went to his house. Then the crowds gathered around him, and they all proceeded to Madinah. As a result, the wisdom of Ummul Momenin, Umm Salma, was able to resolve a difficult situation.

The signing of the agreement was interrupted by the appearance of a young Muslim who had been chained inside the Muslim camp, pleading for help and liberation. Sohail was well aware of the situation. He was well aware of the situation. It was Abu Jandal, Sohail's son, who greeted him with a yell "This is the litmus test for the treaty: in accordance with clause 4, you are not permitted to take this individual. You owe it to me." "You owe it to me." "You owe it to me." "In Allah's name, we have just concluded and will honour a treaty with the Quraish," the Holy Prophet agreed, and Abu Jandal was consoled by the Holy Prophet. Continue to be patient and submit your will to Allah's commandments. He's going to be a source of comfort for you." Abu Jandal's father was apprehended, but Makkah escaped and took up residence in the desert.

Another Muslim Utba, also known as Abul Baseer, managed to flee from Makkah and make his way to the shores of the Red Sea. Abu Jandal and many other fugitives joined him, posing a threat to the passing Quraish caravans as they passed through.

Last but not least, the Quraish appealed to the Prophet (peace be upon him) for him to waive the clause and summon the courageous Muslims to Madinah. The Prophet sent a letter to Abul Baseer, who was delighted to receive it, but who was on the verge of death at the time it was delivered. For their part, Abu Jandal and the other 70 women's wives returned to Madinah, where they joined in prayer for Abul Baseer, who had taken them in as guests.

The Treaty of Hudaibiya served as a prelude to the conquest of Makkah by the Muslims. A prophet alliance was formed between the Banu Bakr tribe and Al Quraish, and the Banu Khaza'a tribe and Al Quraish tribe as a result of the agreement. 

They did, however, have a long history of animosity toward one another. Banu Bakr launched an attack on Banu Khaza'a after only 20 months in the month of Sha'ban (8AH). Hundreds of people were killed, and their leader, Nofel, did not spare a soul, even in the most sacred of places. 

The Quraish also assisted them by providing men and weapons. Amr bin Salem, a Banu Khaza'a warrior, and twenty other men rushed to Madinah to inform the Holy Prophet of the situation on the battlefield. On this particular occasion, the Prophet (peace be upon him) rose from the dead.

The Treaty of Hudaibiya served as a prelude to the conquest of Makkah by the Muslims. A prophet alliance was formed between the Banu Bakr tribe and Al Quraish, and the Banu Khaza'a tribe and Al Quraish tribe as a result of the agreement. They did, however, have a long history of animosity toward one another. Banu Bakr launched an attack on Banu Khaza'a after only 20 months in the month of Sha'ban (8AH). 

Hundreds of people were killed, and their leader, Nofel, did not spare a soul, even in the most sacred of places. The Quraish also assisted them by providing men and weapons. Amr bin Salem, a Banu Khaza'a warrior, and twenty other men rushed to Madinah to inform the Holy Prophet of the situation on the battlefield. On this particular occasion, the Prophet (peace be upon him) rose from the dead.

He sent a message to the Qur'an, advising them to ransom those who had been killed, to end their alliance with the Banu Bakr, or to declare the Hudaibiyah Treaty unconstitutional. Despite their arrogance, the Quraish responded, "We will not pay ransom or terminate our alliance with Banu Bakr, but we are willing to renounce our agreement with you." The test was taken by the Holy Prophet. He was, on the other hand, determined to avoid any bloodshed in Harem at all costs. He devised a covert strategy to take Makkah by surprise with a large amount of force, and he was successful in convincing the Makkans to surrender without a fight. It was an extremely sound strategy. 

He declared war preparations without identifying a specific target. During Ramadan, Muslim tribes flocked to Madinah in large numbers (8AH). Many northern tribes had converted to Islam in the 20 months following the conquest of Khyber and Taima, which took place in the summer of 1498. There were tens of thousands of Muslim volunteers on the scene. The well-known tribes of Aslam, Sulaim, Ghifar, Muzaina, Ashyaa, and Juhaina all joined the Islamic cause, as did the tribes of Sulaim and Ghifar. Muslim forces marched to Makkah and pitched tents at Marr Zahran, where they remained for several days. 

On the 7th of Ramadan, they surrounded the holy city. The Quraish were completely thrown off their guard by this unexpected attack. Muslims also barricaded all possible escape routes. On the 10th of Ramadan (6AH), the Holy Prophet declared a general amnesty, and the entire city came to him without any bloodshed (except for a few by Khalid bin Waleed). The Treaty of Hudaibiyah provided a tremendous gift to the people of Yemen.

Also significant was the fact that great Islamic guerrilla fighters and arch adversaries recognised the situation and converted to Islam following the agreement of Hudaibiyah, which occurred prior to the conquest of Makkah. Among them were Abbas bin Abdul Muttalib, the Prophet's uncle; Abu Sufyan, the head of the Quraish; Khalid bin Waleed, the great victor; and the Egyptian conqueror Amr Ibn al Aas, who would later become known as Amr Ibn al Aas. 

It was Ikrema bin Abu Jehal, Uteba bin Abi Lahab, Kaab bin Zuhair, Sohail bin Amr, Wahshi the Hamza, and Hindah bint Rabia who were among the ladies who later converted to Islam. In Makkah, there were virtually no opponents of Islam left. It took only 22 months after his arrival in town before the Makkan leadership recognised him as their leader, and he was denied entry into the town in 6 AH. This was a significant accomplishment for Hudaibiyah.

The presence of Hudaibiyah near Mackah Al-Mukarramah has consequently resulted in significant events being associated with the city. Afterwards, this historical site was visited, and a mosque was constructed on the site of a prayer offered by the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). It's about 20 kilometres from Makkah on the old road to Jeddah when you get to this mosque near Shumaisi. When you visit this place, think about the people who took an oath to give their lives for Islam and pray for them as you do so.


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